Psychology for Lawyers

subpersonalities & the selves within


Preface

"As we listen in our thought to the critiques of ourselves and of others, we hear not only the voice of the mother or the father, but the teacher, the style of pedagogy we were schooled in, the structure of the workplaces and their values that we have given credence to. the intrapsychic, the interior or the imaginal is not an isolated preserve; it is a distillation of history, culture, religion, and nature.

* * * *

In my work Invisible Guests: The Development of Imaginal Dialogues . . ., I have described the dialogical nature of thought, how thought is a mosaic of voices in conversation. The complexity of thought can begin to be grasped as we discern the nature of the various voices who are speaking, and become aware of the manner of relation between them and between our 'observing ego' and each of them. I argued there that the promoting of dialogue among the multiplicity was crucial to psychological awareness and well-being."

—Mary Watkins, "Pathways Between the Multiplicities of the Psyche and Culture: The Development of Dialogical Capacities," in John Rowan & Mick Cooper (eds.), The Plural Self: Multiplicity in Everyday Life 254-268, at 255 (Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 1999)

"Psychologically, polytheism is a matter of the radical experience of equally real, but mutually exclusive aspects of the self. Personal identity cannot seem to be fixed. . . . The person experiences himself as many selves each of which is felt to have autonomous power, a life of its own, coming and going on its own and without regard to the centered will of a single ego. Yet surprisingly this experience is not sense as a pathology. One gets along quite well in reality; in fact the very disparateness of the mutifaceted self seems to have survival power. It seems to carry with it a certain advantage i the face of the times."

—David L. Miller, The New Polytheism: Rebirth of the Gods and Goddesses 5 (New York: Harper & Row 1974)

"Psyche brings with it its own plurality, fluidity, and the existence of relatively autonomous entities therein. . . . [P]sychology theory-making doesn't seem possible without . . . implicit personification. Jung was the arch exponent of this; his whole psychology takes the form of an animation of inner personages.

* * * *

"On the personal level, we are faced with the pluralistic task of reconciling our many internal voices and images of ourselves with our wish and need to feel integrated and speak with one voice. It is an issue of intense feeling, this intrapsychic process. It has been become an issue of thinking, for psychological theory also seeks to see how the various conflicts, complexes, attitudes, functions, self-objects, part-selves, sub-personalities, deintegrates, psychic dramatis personae, internal objects, areas of the mind, subphases, gods—how all of these relate to the psyche as a whole. And what happens when a single part out of many begins to act as if it had the force and weight of the whole?"

—Andrew Samuels, The Plural Psyche: Personality, Morality, and the Father 2 (London: Routledge, 1989)

"The notion that there are multiple aspects of the self, albeit described in different ways, has been put forward by authors from a range of theoretical traditions, including psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive-behavioural, constructivist, and narrative schools. . . . John Rowan provides an integration of these various perspectives, attempting to move beyond arguments about the different definitions, and consequent reifications, of parts of the self, which he regards as 'any aspect of the person which can be personified.'"

—David Winter, Book Review (of John Rowan's Personification: Using the Dialogical Self in Psychotherapy and Counselling, Routledge, 2009), 7 Personal Construct Theory & Practice 12 (2010) [Winter argues that Rowan's book "provides a brief and tantalising glimpse of the integrative potential of the notion of the multiplicity of the person, and the therapeutic possibilities of personification." Id. at 13]

"Personification became Jung's fundamental method. Working with word associations, and active imagination, discovering autonomous complexes, he started using personification as a way of having a dialogue with the psyche.

* * * *

Today . . . the 'Hillmanian perspective' [following the work of James Hillman] views the psyche as an entity with a natural propensity to personify, to mythologize and to produce images. At the same time it postulates the psyche as naturally dividing itself into many parts and images."

—Aleš Vrbata, Beyond the Myth of "Self-Domination": Imaginal Psychology in the Pursuit of Cultural Shift, 24 Human Affairs 142, 143 (2014)

"Psyche as described by Hillman is polytheistic, sounding forth a complex layering of often contradictory and paradoxical voices of multiple figures and perspectives. The 'heroic ego' is that part of us that attempts to deny and silence this multiplicity, asserting unilateral power and control. It denies diversity and eschews dialogue, proceeding with a monologue that does not understand its own viewpoint as a perspective. The multiplicity of the psyche arises spontaneously, however, and when repressed or negated, it voices itself through symptom and pathology. The methodology for understanding and healing . . . calls for an attempt to bracket the dominating and oppressive aspects of the ego, making space for the unlistened-to and the silenced to speak directly. One turns to the margins of awareness, to greet and coax other points of view into dialogue, and to listen to what has been voiced but unheeded."

—Mark Watkins, "'Breaking the Vessels'":Archetypal psychology and the Restoration of Culture, Community, and Ecology," in Stanton Marlan, Archetypal Psychologies: Reflections in Honor of James Hillman 415-437m at 424-425 (New Orleans: Spring Journal Books, 2012)

"The self divided is precisely where the self is authentically located . . . . Authenticity is the perpetual dismemberment of being and not-being a self, a being that is always in many parts, like a dream with a full cast. We all have identity crises because a single identity is a delusion of the monotheistic mind . . . . We all have dispersed consciousness . . . . Authenticity is in the illusion, playing it, seeing through it from within as we play it, like an actor who sees through his mask and can only see in this way."

—James Hillman, Healing Fiction 39 (New York: Station Hill, 1983)

"[W]e conceptualize the self in terms of a dynamic multiplicity of relatively autonomous I positions in an imaginal landscape. In its most concise form this conception can be formulated as follows. The I has the possibility to move, as in a space, from one position to the other in accordance with changes in situation and time. The I fluctuates among different and even opposed positions. The I has the capacity to imaginatively endow each position with a voice so that dialogical relations between positions can be established. The voices function like interacting characters in a story. Once a character is set in motion in a story, the character takes on a life of its own, and thus assumes a certain narrative necessity. Each character has a story to ell about experiences from its own stance. As different voices these characters exchange information abut their respective Mes and their worlds, resulting in a complex, narratively structured self.

* * * *

The dialogical self, in contrast with the individualistic self, is based on the assumption that there are many I positions that can be occupied by the same person. The I in one position can agree, disagree, understand, misunderstand, oppose, contradict, question, and even ridicule the I in another position.

* * * *

The dialogical self contrasts with the notion of the self as the center of control. The different I positions represent different anchor points that may organize the other I positions at a given point in time.

* * * *

The dialogical self can be seen as a multiplicity of I positions or as possible selves."

—Hubert J.M. Hermans, Harry J.G. Kempen & Rens J.P. van Loon, The Dialogical Self: Beyond Individualism and Rationalism, 47 (1) American Psychologist 23, 28-29, 30 (1992)

Readings

Charles Riech, The Sorcerer of Bolinas Reef 19-47 (New York: Random House, 1976)

Giancarlo Dimaggio & William B. Stiles, Psychotherapy in Light of Internal Multiplicity, 63 (2) J. Clinical Psychology: In Session 119, 119-124 (2007)

Leonard L. Riskin, Managing Inner and Outer Conflict: Selves, Subpersonalities, and Internal Family Systems, 18 Harv. Negotiation L. Rev. 1, 11-27 (2013) [online text]

Eric J. Green, Individuals in Conflicty: An Internal Family Systems Approach, 16 (2) Family Journal: Counseling & Therapy for Couples & Familes, 125 (2008) [online text]

Richard Schwartz, Our Multiple Selves: Applying Systems Thinking to the Inner Family [online text]

Evolution of the Internal Family Systems Model [Richard Schwartz, Center for Self Leadership] [online text]

Eric J. Green, Individuals in Conflicty: An Internal Family Systems Approach, 16 (2) Family Journal: Counseling & Therapy for Couples & Familes, 125 (2008) [online text]

Hal Stone & Sidra Stone, The Basic Elements of Voice Dialogue, Relationship, and the Psychology of Selves, 2007 [online text] [Your reading of Stone & Stone's "Basic Elements of Voice Dialogue" can be abbreviated by ending your reading at mid-page 8 ("The Forth Element).]

Class Videos

Class Viewing 1: Self-Sabotage from Jungian, Kleinian, and Fairbairnian Perspectives [13:48 mins.] [Jeffrey Lewis and Michael V. Adams comments] [end presentation at 2:54 mins.]

Class Viewing 2:Normal-You and Angry-You [4:27 mins.] [Jordan Peterson] [psyche as living partial personalities]

Class Viewing 3: Jordan Peterson Lecture: Freud: An Overview [1:18:39 mins.] [2016 course lecture in Peterson's course, Personality and Its Transformation] [begin presentation at 1:42 mins. and end at 5:26 mins.] [Peterson continues with comments on Freud's view of the structure of the psyche]

Class Viewing 4: Maps of Meaning: Patterns of Symbolic Representation [2:16:49 mins.] [Jordan Peterson] [end in-class presentation at 2:34 mins.]

Class Viewing 5: Emerging Purpose Psychosynthesis Counselling [3:39 mins.] [end class presentation at 3:18 mins.] ["within us we have a crowd of people"; parts of the self can be in opposition to each other; in therapy we can get to know the different parts of the self"; goal is to become the conductor of the chorus; we get stuck in life because our voices, our parts, begin to shout over each other] [Greg Donaldson is a psychsynthesis counselor in London]

Class Viewing 6: The Total Self [9:31 mins.] [Hal Stone] [Thinking Allowed with Jeffrey Mishlove] [end class presentation at 3:45 mins.]

Class Viewing 7: The Power of Voice Dialogue [9:48 mins.] [Hal Stone] [becoming aware of the selves can be difficult] [Hal Stone, in contrast to Richard Schwartz's concept of Self, talks about an "Inner Teacher"]

Class Viewing 8: Evolution of the Internal Family Systems Model [21:48 mins.] [Richard Schwartz]

Alternative Richard Schwartz (IFS) Video: The Power of Self to Heal Our Parts [18:57 mins.] [overview by Richard Schwartz of how he began to devise the IFS approach to therapy]

Jordan Peterson

On Subpersonalities
[4:24 mins.]

Resurrection of Logos
[2:34:51 mins.] [March, 2017] [Peterson's presentation begins at 51:59 mins. and ends at 1:15:46 mins.] [Paterson's comments on how we might live by setting out not to lie, and how in his own doing so he learns of his two selves, the talking person and the watching person, begins at 1:12:00 mins. and ends at 1:15:49 mins.]

Psychosynthesis

Psychosynthesis & Sub Personalities
[3:34 mins.] [Greg Donaldson]

From Psychoanalysis to Psychosynthesis
[7:08 mins.] [Yoav Dattilo]

What is Psychosynthesis? Counselling & Therapy
[3:40 mins.] [Gillian Moody]

What is Psychosynthesis?
[2:29 mins.] [reference to guided imagery and work with sub-personalities]

Voice Dialogue | Psychology of the Selves (Hal Stone)

Voice Dialogue and Consciousness
[8:11 mins.] [Hal Stone talks with John Kent]

Voice Dialogue: Health and Subpersonalities
[7:05 mins.] [Hal Stone & Sidra Stone] Pt2 [5:32 mins.]

The Dream Self
[9:14 mins.]

Introduction to Voice Dialogue
[9:36 mins.] Finding The Right Partner [6:20 mins.]

The Dance of Selves in Relationship
[7:27 mins.] [Sidra Stone in conversation with John Kent]

Voice Dialogue a Psycho-Spiritual Approach to Consciousness and Transformation
[3:12 mins.] [John Kent] [reference to the "aware ego"]

An Explanation of the Voice Dialogue System
[22:32 mins.]

Voice Dialogue: Health and Subpersonalities
[7:05 mins.] Pt2 [5:31 mins.]

Voice Dialogue Therapy: Talk to Your Parts and Learn to Listen to Their Wisdom
[5:16 mins.]

Voice Dialogue and the Neurobiology of the Brain
[12:11 mins.] [John Dougherty, professor of Medicine (neurology), University of Tennessee talks about finding and work with voice dialogue] [reference to Hal Stone's concept of the "aware ego"]

Voice Dialogue and "Psycho-Education"
[14:19 mins.]

Voice Dialogue
[4:14 mins.]

Peter Chown & Ana Barner Talk about Voice Dialogue as a Transformational Practice
[15:56 mins.]

Readings

The Psychology of Selves
[Hal Stone & Sidra Stone]

Embracing All Our Selves
[Hal Stone & Sidra Stone]

Allow Me to Introduce My Selves: An Introduction to and Phenomenological Study of Voice Dialogue Therapy [Zohar E. Berchik, Adam J. Rock & Harris Friedman, 48 (1) J. Transpersonal Psychology 88 (2016)]

Reference (Multiple Selves) (Inner Voices) (Subpersonalities)

Understanding Subpersonalities
[5:20 mins.] [Nando Raynolds]

Are there Several Subjective Selves or Just One?
[16:18 mins.] [Stan Klein Interview] [professor of psychology, affiliated with the Department of Philosophy, University of California-Santa Barbara]

Is Our "Mind" the Only Mind that Exists in Our Brain?
[7:11 mins.] [Mark Solms] [a Freudian perspective that lacks reference to Jung's concept of the collective unconscious]

Get Rid of Internal Conflicts: The Deep Wisdom Process
[14:49 mins.] [Midlife Crisis Coaching] [on work with parts of the self] [a steady flow of sub-personalities jargon]

Author Chat: Mary Harrell
[28:36 mins.] [Author of Imaginal Figures In Everyday Life (Chrion Publications, 2015)]

Managing the Inner Critic
[6:13 mins.] [reference to the "psychology of selves"]

The Critical Inner Voice
[5:41 mins.] [whiteboard animation]

The Brain's Greatest Con Trick
[18:22 mins.] [Bruce Hood]

The Self Illusion: How Your Brain Creates You
[Bruce Hood, 2012]

The Self Illusion
[23:27 mins.] [Susan Blackmore]

Sub Personalities
[5:57 mins.] [Eckhart Tolle]

To Be or Not To Be: The Self as Illusion
[1:00:53 mins.] [2010]

Ken Wilbur on Subpersonalities
[15:34 mins.]

Web Resources

First Person Plural
[Paul Bloom, The Atlantic]

Working with Our Inner Parts
[Mary-Anne Johnston] [Jungian analyst]

Subpersonality
[Wikipedia]

James Vargiu, Subpersonalities
[1Synthesis: The Realization of the Self (1974)]

John Firman, Self and Self-Realization

Identifying Your Subpersonalities

Internal Family System

Finding Your Parts
[9:30 mins.] [animated introduction to Internal Family Systems Therapy; music by Indiajiva with sitar, rhythmic chants and pulsating drums prominently featured]

Richard Schwartz

An Overview of Internal Family Systems
[21:49 mins.]

IFS by The Center for Self Leadership
[10:40 mins.] [in the first minutes of the video, Schwartz talks about the origins of Internal Family Systems therapy that he talks about in a more comprehensive way in Evolution of The Internal Family Systems Model (an in-class video)]

The Power of Self to Heal Our Parts
[18:57 mins.] [an overview by Richard Schwartz of how he began to devise the IFS approach to therapy]

A Dick Schwartz Interview
[48:49 mins.] [Schwartz begins by talking about his childhood]

Richard Schwartz on Healing the Exile
[6:02 mins.] [reference to "attachment" theory; commentary on the "parts" of the self that become exiles]

Soothing Our Inner Parts
[2:45 mins.]

You Are Not Alone: Richard Schwartz & Stefan Molyneux
[49:41 mins.] [Schwartz appears only by way of audio]

You Are Not Alone | Dr. Richard Schwartz & Stefan Molyneux
[49:41 mins.]

Dick Schwartz: Development of the Internal Family Systems Model
[48:49 mins.]

Internal Family Systems (IFS): A Guided Meditation
[9:06 mins.]

IFS (Derek Scott)

Understanding The Personality System: Introduction to the Internal Family System
[9:40 mins.]

IFS: Exploring Your Own System
[9:40 mins.] Pt2 [9:49 mins.] Pt3 [9:50 mins.]

IFS for Therapists #1: Self-Leadership
[18:38 mins.]

IFS for Therapists #2
[28:31 mins.]

IFS for Therapists #3: Working in Session
[22:14 mins.]

IFS for Therapists #3a: Meditation for Self Energy
[3:15 mins.]

IFS for Therapists #4: Common Dynamics
[32:52 mins.]

IFS for Therapists #5: Working between Sessions
[23:51 mins.]

IFS (Jay Earley)

IFS Webinar
[1:53:00 mins.] [streamed live on March 11, 2015] [Jay Earley introduces himself as a psychologist and psychotherapist] [good working introduction to Internal Family Systems approach to therapy]

The Voices in my Head with Jay Earley
[56:36 mins.] [podcast]

Inner Critic Webinar
[1:08:44 mins.] [webinar begins at 3:54 mins. after some technical difficulties]

Introduction to Inner Critic
[15:49 mins.] [streamed live on May 13, 2016] Inner Critic Stage 1 [9:00 mins.] Stage 2 [23:26 mins.] Stage 3 [5:31 mins.] Stage 4 [21:40 mins.] Stage 5 [16:56 mins.] Inner Critic Conclusion Stage [10:05 mins.]

Interpersonal Patterns Webinar
[1:47:45 mins.]

IFS (Pete Gerlach)

Q&A about Your Personality "Subselves" or "Parts"
[14:58 mins.]

Who Are You? An Intro to Common Personality Subselves that May Shape Your Life
[14:51 mins.]

Who's Really Running Your Life?
[12:14 mins.]

How to Identify Your Personality Subselves (Parts)
[10:39 mins.]

An Explanation of "Inner-Family Therapy
[8:21 mins.] [Pete Gerlach is a trauma recovery therapist, and a psychotherapist]

Are You Distorting Reality? How Do You Know?
[13:06 mins.]

Are You a "Grown Wounded Child"
[12:23 mins.]

IFS

Internal Family Systems Therapy
[59:09 mins.] [Graham Disque] [February, 2016]

Internal Family Systems (IFS) and Writing: Writing from the Self
[7:26 mins.]

Parts Works and Buddhism
[4:04 mins.] [Tom Holmes]

Tom Holmes Lecture
[1:03:49 mins.] [June, 2012]

Internal Family Systems: A Guided Meditation
[9:06 mins.]

Dialogical Self

Working at Relational Depth in Counselling: The Dialogical Self
[12:43 mins.]

Hubert Hermans on the Dialogical Self
[4:14 mins.]

Resources

Dialogical Self
[Wikipedia]

Inner Child

What is the Inner Child?
[5:23 mins.

How to Heal Your Wounded Inner Child (Carl Jung and Individuation)
[4:27 mins.]

Resources

Inner Critic
[Wikipedia]

Inner Critic

The Critical Inner Voice
[5:41 mins.] [whiteboard animation]

Joyce DiDonato on Your Inner Critic
[6:20 mins.] [DiDonato is a music teacher at the Julliard School of Music]

Bibliography in progress

John Rowan, Subpersonalities: The People Inside Us (London: Routledge, 1990)

_________, Personification: Using The Dialogical Self in Psychotherapy and Counselling (London: Routledge, 2010)

John Rowan & Mick Cooper, The Plural Self: Multiplicity In Everyday Life (Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 1999)

Sidra Stone & Hal Stone, The Voice Dialogue Anthology: Explorations of the Psychology of Selves and the Aware Ego Process (Delos, 2012) (Dassie Hoffman ed.).

Rita Carter, Multiplicity: The New Science of Personality, Identity, and the Self (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2008)

David Lester, Multiple Selves (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publ., 2015)

Richard C. Schwartz, Internal Family Systems Therapy (New York: Guilford Press, rev.ed., 1997)

________________, Introduction to the Internal Family Systems Model (Oak Park, Illinois: Trailheads Publ., 2001)

Tom Holmes, Parts Work: An Illustrated Guide to Your Inner Life (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Winged Heart Press, 2007)

Jay Earley, Self-Therapy: A Step-By-Step Guide to Creating Wholeness and Healing Your Inner Child (Larkspur, California: Pattern System Books, 2009)

Jay Earley & Bonnie Weiss, Freedom from Your Inner Critic: A Self-Therapy Approach (Boulder, Colorado: Sounds True, 2013)

 

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