Psychology for Lawyers

freud & psychoanalysis: pt2



"The Principles of Psychoanalytic Therapy," in Franz Alexander, Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis 272-302 (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1963)

A.A. Brill, Lectures on Psychoanalytic Psychiatry 96-102 (New York: Vintage Books, 1955)

"The Id and the Development of the Ego," in Lawrence J. Friedman, Psy'cho-a-nal'-y-sis: Uses and Abuses 57-88 (New York: Paul S. Eriksson, 1968)

"The Functions of the Ego, and Its Failure," in Franz Alexander, Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis 82-95 (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1963)

Class Videos

Class Viewing 1: Sigmund Freud by Michael Lacewing [39:15 mins.] [end class screening of video at 8:26 mins.] [Michael Lacewing's presentation is a video in the St. Johns Nottingham series of presentations on philosophy and theology in their Video Timeline Project] [for a longer segment of this video end at 29:55 mins.]

Class Viewing 2: Psychoanalysis & Psychoanalytic Treatment [15:50 mins.] [end presentation at 4:28 mins.] [If presentation continues, skip Dula's rant on dreams at 5:28 mins. to 7:14 mins.] [In the Dula lecture there are references to: the unconscious | id, ego, superego | Freud's "energy model" | repression; comments on transference & countertransference begins at 7:14 mins.; Dula goes on to comment on resistance, defense mechanisms, and insight (and insight therapies)]

Class Viewing 3: On Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory [14:05 mins.] [begin the video at 5:18 mins.; end at 10:26 mins.]

Class Viewing 4: What is Psychoanalysis? The Ego, the Id and the Superego [10:57 mins.] [discussion of Freud's model of conflict] [Freud Museum of London]

Class Viewing 5: Understanding Psychodynamic Counseling [8:22 mins.] [interview of psychotherapist Brendan McLoughlin] [beginnings of psychodynamic approach to counseling is grounded in Freud's theories and an understanding of the unconscious; comments on Freud's theory of the id, ego, and superego]

Class Viewing 6: Psychoanalysis: An Introduction [7:03 mins.] [psychoanalysts talk about psychoanalysis]

Alternative to Videos Presented in Class (Jordan Petersen Lectures)

Freud: An Overview [1:18:39 mins.] [2016 course lecture in Jordan Peterson's course, Personality and Its Transformation] [one possible viewing would end the Peterson lecture at 46:04 mins.or, alternatively view the entire presentation; the lecture ends at 1:18:11 mins.]

Jordan B. Peterson on Sigmund Freud's Depth Psychology
[1:14:39 mins.] Pt2 [1:16:07 mins.] [Pt2 effectively ends at 38:50 mins.]

A 2nd Alternative to Videos Presented in Class

Freud in the 21st Century: Psychoanalysis and/or Psychology [1:26:11 mins.] [lecture begins at 3:50 mins.] [Timothy L. Hulsey, Virginia Commonwealth University psychology professor] [looking at psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theory from an academic perspective :: commentary changes direction at 16:20 mins. and begins to focus on Freud's biography :: viewing of the lecture might begin again at 25:48 mins. :: end at 31:02 mins.] [total viewing: 18 mins.]

A 3rd Alternative for Videos to Present in Class

Introduction to Psychology: Freud [56:30 mins.] [Paul Bloom, Yale University] [2008] [begin presentation at 6:58 mins.; end at 13:45 mins.] [at 13:45 mins., Bloom begins presentation of Freud's theory of psychosexual development, if this part of the presentation is used, end class presentation at 20:48 mins.] [concentration on the unconscious and unconscious motivation; id, ego, superego introduced at 10:22 mins.] [on ego defense mechanisms, see 20:48 mins. to 25:40 mins.] [for a longer showing of the video end at 28:40 mins.] [at 32:52 mins. Bloom discusses the contemporary critique of Freudian theory]

Freud and the Psychoanalysis [15:15 mins.]

Psychoanalytic Theories [53:43 mins.] [audio with slides] [Diane Gehart] [end class presentation at 30:52 mins.]

Reference (Gerald Gargiulo Who Appears in Class Video)

Becoming a Psychotherapist: Autobiography
[21:34 mins.] [Gerald Gargiulo talks about his life]

Reading a Chapter from His Book Psyche, Self and Soul
[38:05 mins.]

A Note on Psychoanalytic Theory & Psychoanalysis

Wilhelm Reich, Character-Analysis (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux/Noonday Press, 3rd ed., 1949) (Theodore P. Wolfe trans.): Wilhelm Reich, in his first reference to psychoanalysis in Character-Analysis, refers to psychoanalytic theory as a "theory of the neuroses." [3]. Reich goes on set forth Freud's "basic theoretical concepts of the neurotic process" and of psychoanalytic practice:

"Every neurosis is due to a conflict between repressed instinctual demands--which always include early infantile sexual demands--and the repressing forces of the ego. The unresolved conflict expresses itself in the neurotic symptom or neurotic character trait. The technical requirement for the solution of the conflict . . . is the 'resolution of the repression,' in other words, the making conscious of the unconscious conflict. Since, however, certain psychic forces act like a rigorous censor with regard to the patient's own thoughts and wishes and thus keep them from becoming conscious, it is necessary to eliminate the selecting of material which is necessary in ordinary thinking and to let the thoughts wander freely, without critical selection. Among the material then coming up, one finds more and more repressed, unconscious and infantile elements which, with the aid of the analyst, have to be translated into the language of the conscious. The so-called 'fundamental rule,' the rule of 'free association' with the elimination of critical selection of material, is the indispensable prerequisite of analytic technique. It is aided by the force of the unconscious drives which urge to consciousness and to action; it is hampered, on the other hand, by an also unconscious force, the defense of the ego, which makes it difficult or impossible for the patient to follow the fundamental rule. This force makes itself felt as a 'resistance' against the dissolution of the repression. This theoretical insight determines another practical rule: the rule that the making conscious of the unconscious has to take place not directly, but by the elimination of the resistances. That is, the patient must first find out that he defends himself, then by what means, and, finally, against what. This work of making things conscious is called 'interpretation.' It consists either in the disclosure of disguised expressions of the unconscious or in the re-establishment of connections which had been lost by repressions. The repressed wishes and fears of the patient seek constantly for discharge, that is, they tend to become attached to real persons and situations. The most important reason for this is the lack of libidinous gratification in the patient; thus, he attaches his unconscious demands and fears also to the analyst and the analytic situation. This results in the 'transference,' that is, the establishment of relationships of love, hatred or anxiety with the analyst. These attitudes toward the analyst are nothing but repetitions of earlier, chiefly infantile attitudes toward people in the early environment which had been of importance and which had become unconscious. These transferences must be treated as such, that is, they must be 'resolved' by discovering their meaning in terms of infantile relationships. Since every neurosis is based on unresolved conflicts which occurred before the fourth year of life, and since these conflicts become reactivated in the transference, the analysis of the transference, together with the resolution of the resistances, forms the most important aspect of the analytic work. Since, further, the patient, in the transference, attempts to replace the interpretation work by the gratification of the unsatisfied old love or hate impulses and also defends himself against recognizing these attitudes, the transference usually becomes a resistance, that is, it impedes the progress of the treatment. The negative transference, that is, the transferred hate impulses, are from the beginning recognizable as resistances, while the transference of love impulses turns into a resistance only when, as a result of disappointment, it turns into negative transference or anxiety." [3-5]

A Note on the Foundation of Psychoanalytic Theory

"Psychoanalysis . . . is a psychology of the unconscious mind. This implies no exclusion or disparagement of consciousness, but is simply a natural consequence of the assumption that much of the most important mental life is unconscious. Of the total mind so conceived, only a thin upper layer, figuratively speaking, rises into the light of consciousness, while the main substance and mass lies quite beyond the reach of self-awareness or ordinary introspection. To understand the human mind by the study of consciousness alone resembles an attempt to learn the structure and content of the ocean depths by examination of the surface waters."

—Martin W. Peck, The Meaning of Psychoanalysis (New York: Sun Dial Press, 1931)

Brief Introductions to Freud's Theories

Psychotherapy: Sigmund Freud
[7:19 mins.] [The School of Life]

Psychoanalytic Theory
[7:41 mins.]

Freud's Contribution to Psychology
[3:01 mins.]

Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis
[44:48 mins.] [Jon Mills, Adler Graduate Professional School, Toronto] [Recommends his audience read Freud's New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, based on lectures given by Freud] Pt2 [35:15 mins.]

Theories of Counseling: Psychoanalytic Therapy
[28:23 mins.] [audio]

100 Years of Psychoanalysis in America
[11:00 mins.]

Introduction to Freud: Topographic and Structural Models
[15:27 mins.] [audio with slides]

Freud and the Psychoanalysis
[15:15 mins.]

Freud Introduces Psychoanalysis

A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis
[8:51:26 mins.] [a reading from Freud's book] [Freud's presentation of "the psychoanalytic conception of neurotic manifestation" begins at 7:56 mins.] [informative presentation of a case of obsessional jealousy can end at 27:54 mins.]

Freud's Books

A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis

The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis

The Interpretation of Dreams

Reference (Psychoanalytic Theory: Basic Concepts)

Psychotherapy--Sigmund Freud
[7:19 mins.] [School of Life]

Introduction to Freud's Personality Theory
[6:11 mins.]

Freud and Psychoanalysis
[15:16 mins.] [audio] [introductory comments on Freud and his ideas]

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts: Motivation, Personality and Development
[5:14 mins.]

Reference (Psychosexual Stages of Development)

Freud's Psychosexual Development
[12:19 mins.]

Freud's Psychosexual Stages
[4:10 mins.]

Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development
[9:36 mins.]

Reference (Lectures|Psychoanalytic Theory)

An Introductory Lecture on Psychoanalysis
[46:39 mins.] [audio] [Eric Landrum, Department of Psychology, Boise State University]

Freud in the 21st Century: Psychoanalysis and/or Psychology [1:26:11 mins.] [lecture begins at 3:50 mins.] [Timothy L. Hulsey, Virginia Commonwealth University psychology professor] [looking at psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theory from an academic perspective :: commentary changes direction at 16:57 mins. and begins to focus on Freud's biography :: viewing of the lecture might begin again at 25:48 mins. :: lecture ends at 31:02 mins.]

Freud's Theory of Human Nature
[44:34 mins.]

Chris Dula Lectures on Freud and Psychoanalysis

On Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: Ego, Super Ego, Ego Ideal, Neurosis, Anxiety
[14:15 mins.] [end at 11:20 mins.]

Personality: Freudian Psychoanalysis
[14:05 mins.] [Chris Dula class lectures, East Tennessee State University] Pt 2 [14:15 mins.] Pt3 [13:08 mins.] [Ego Defense Mechanisms: repression, regression, displacement, reaction formation] Pt4 [5:47 mins.] [Ego Defense Mechanisms: sublimation, projection, rationalization, denial] Pt5 [11:00 mins.] [Psychosexual stages of development: oral and anal] Pt6 [10:39 mins.] [Psychosexual stages of development: phallic, latency, genital]

Chris Dula Lecture Resources (Unconscious)

Freud on the Unconscious

Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A Conceptual Analysis

Chris Dula Lecture Resources (Id, Ego, Superego)

Freud and Psychoanalysis
[15:15 mins.] [audio with visual slides] [commentary on Freud's structural model--id, ego, superego--begins at 7:26 mins. and ends at 10:20 mins.]

Introduction to the Id, the Superego and the Ego
[4:47 mins.]

Freud's Theory of Human Nature
[44:34 mins.] [commentary on Freud's structural model of the mind (id, ego, superego) begins at 5:06 mins. and ends at 18:34 mins.]

Introduction to Freud: Topographic and Structural Models
[15:27 mins.]

Freud: Id, Ego, Superego
[7:23 mins.]

Id, Ego, Superego
[3:08 mins.] [animation]

Freud's Explanation

Id, Ego, and Superego in Psychoanalytic Theory

The Structure of the Unconscious

Dula Lecture Resources (Repression)

Freud on Repression

Freud on Repression

Repression: Anxiety Filter for the Ego
[an introductory comment]

Critical Concepts: Psychological Repression
[critical concepts in literary analysis]

Freudian Repression, the Common View, and Pathological Science
[Review of General Psychology, 2006]

Does Repression Exist? Memory, Pathogenic, Unconscious and Clinical Evidence
[Review of General Psychology, 2008]

Dula Lecture Resources (Transference)

Freud on Transference

Psychology for Lawyers: Course Resources (Transference and Countertransference)

Dula Lecture Resources (Resistance)

Freud on Resistance

Psychological Resistance

Dula Lecture Resources (Defense Mechanisms)

Psychology for Lawyers: Course Resources

Freud on Sublimation
[5:18 mins.]

Reference (Freud Documentaries)

Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams
[14:59 mins.] Pt2 [12: 53 mins.] Pt3 [14:35 mins.] Pt4 [6:55 mins.]

The Father of Psychoanalysis
[56:59 mins.] [NOVA]

The Biography of Sigmund Freud
[19:00] [alt. posting] Pt1 [2:18 mins.] ["the look within"] Pt2 [9:56 mins.] Pt3 [9:52 mins.] Pt4 [5:43 mins.] Pt5 [4:41 mins.]

Sigmund Freud Documentary
[21:49 mins.]

The Case of Sigmund Freud
[9:48 mins.] [audio; BBC] Pt2 [7:01 mins.] Pt3 [10:51 mins.]

Freud Home Movies
[23:51 mins.]

Sigmund Freud: The Last Decade
[2:02 mins.] [narrated by Anna Freud]

Anna Freud
[55:01 mins.]

Reference (Psychoanalysis: Current Perspectives)

Interview with Steven Grosz
[12:18 mins.][author of The Examined Mind: How We Lose and Find Ourselves (New York: W.W. Norton, 2014)]

Psychoanalysis in the United States
[1 hr. 32 mins.] [roundtable discussion; participants are Jay Greenberg, William Grossman, Peter Loewenberg, Robert Michels, Edward Nersessian, and Jerome Winer]

Is Freud Dead: The Relevance of Freud's Theories in Today's World
[1:48:54 mins.]

Beyond Instinct & Intellect: Modern Psychoanalysis
[1:45:15 mins.]

Modern Psychoanalysis: Its Place in Psychoanalytic History
[1:20:59 mins.] [Sara Sheftel]

The Origins of Freud's Imagination
[1:46:34 mins.]

The Place of Agency & Norms in Psychoanalysis
[1:56:28 mins.]

Psychotherapy for the People: Freud, Ferenczi, and Psychoanalytic Work with the Underprivileged
[1:41:58 mins.]

What Kind of Science is Psychoanalysis?
[1:57:32 mins.] [panel presentations by Robert Galatzer-Levy, Irwin Z. Hoffman, Fred M. Levinm and Frank Summers] [Robert Galatzer-Levy's presentation begins at 5:00 mins. and ends at 20:58 mins.] [Irwin Z. Hoffman is introduced at 21:00 mins.] [Fred Levin is introduced at 44:18 mins.]

A Case for Psychoanalysis: Exploring the Scientific Evidence
[43:57 mins.]

Psychoanalysis in Digital Culture
[1:24:52 mins.] [Sherry Turkle]

Psychoanalysis and Therapy: Contrasting Discursivities
[2:11:46 mins.]

Psychoanalysis in the Ashes of History
[59:46 mins.] [A lecture by Cathy Caruth (Professor of Comparative Literature and English, Emory University)]

2015 Freud Memorial Lecture, University of Essex
[1:02:31 mins.] [Alessandra Lemma works with patients with body issues; "mind and body are inseparable"] [University of Essex]

2012 Annual Freud Memorial Lecture
[1:15:06 mins.] [University of Essex] [Jan Abram on "Winnicott's last word on the death instinct"]

50 Years of Contemporary Psychoanalysis: Confluence and Influence
[14:17 mins.]

Stefano Bolognini: The Humanizing Function of Contemporary Pschoanalytic Empathy
[47:18 mins.] Questions & Answers [33:02 mins.]

Lacan by Marcus Pound
[22:41 mins.]

Philosophy, Psychoanalysis, and the Question of Evil
[52:16 mins.] [Jon Mills]

A Short Course on Freud's Psychoanalysis

About Psychoanalysis
[American Psychoanalytic Association]

Sigmund Freud: Personality Theories
[Dr. C. George Boeree]

On the Unconscious
[Dino Felluga, Modules on Freud: On the Unconscious, Introductory Guide to Critical Theory, Purdue University]

On Neurosis
[Dino Felluga]

Freud on Resistance and Repression
[Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis]

Reference (Relational Psychoanalysis)

The Analytic and the Relational: Inquiring into Psychotherapy Practice
[1:01:16 mins.] [Farhad Dalal] [2016] [an account of his divergence from traditional psychoanalytic practices]

Integral Psychology & Relational Psychoanalysis
[12:29 mins.]

Relational Psychoanalysis in the USA and Britain
[1:38 mins.] [Andrew Samuels]

A Critique of the Postmodern Turn in Relational Psychonalysis
[39:57 mins.] [Jon Mills]

Reference (Freud and Jewish Studies)

Who Was Sigmund Freud? Jewish Biography as History
[42:35 mins.]

Freud, Moses and the Holocaust
[1:32:41 mins.] [2014] [Sander Gilman]

The Jewish Body Image and Psychoanalysis
[1:21:07 mins.] [2016] [Sander Gilman]

Eran Rolnik Tnterviewed by Stephen Frosh on Psychoanalysis and Zionism
[1:41:46 mins.]

Forgiveness in Judaism and Psychoanalysis
[1:34:50 mins.] [2015] [introduction of the speaker, Stephen Frosh by Sander Gilman ends at 14:35 mins.]

Freud, Secularism, and Jewish History at The New School
[2:01:35 mins.] [a forum with speakers including: Speakers David Aberbach, author of Surviving Trauma: Loss, Literature, and Psychoanalysis and Turning Points in Jewish Intellectual History; Richard H. Armstrong, author of A Compulsion for Antiquity: Freud and the Ancient World; and Andrew R. Heinze, author of Jews and the American Soul and Adapting to Abundance: Jewish Immigrants, Mass Consumption, and the Search for American Identity. Moderated by Richard J. Bernstein, author of Freud and the Legacy of Moses.]

Reference (Buddhism & Psychoanalysis)

Mark Epstein: The Trauma of Everday Life
[55:57 mins.] [psychiatrist & author of Thoughts Without a Thinker and The Trauma of Everyday Life]

Everyday Trauma: Perspectives from Buddhism & Psychoanalysis
[2:00:11 mins.] [Mark Epstein's lecture begins his lecture at 10:20 mins.]

Reference (Psychoanalysis & the Spiritual)

Toward a Spiritual Point of View in Psychoanalysis
[1:19:55 mins.] [audio] [John E. Mack] [Harvard Professor of Psychology] [1991] [A paper developed from this talk, "Psychoanalysis and the Self: Toward a Spiritual Point of View," was published in L.S. Roune (ed.), Selves, People, and Persons: What Does it Mean to Be a Self? 169-186 (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992)

Web Resources

A Glossary of Freudian Terms
[Craig Chalquist]

Summary of Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
[video :: 1:10 mins.] [psychosexual stages]

Psychoanalysis: Techniques and Practice

On Freud
[Dino Felluga, "Modules on Freud," Introductory Guide to Critical Theory] [sections on psycho-sexual development, the unconscious, repression, neurosis, and transference]

Ego Ideal


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